On the packaging of drugs 0

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Talking about the packaging of drugs

the definition of packaging in China's national standard 5 general terms of packaging 6:/the general name of containers, materials and auxiliary materials used according to certain technical methods to protect products, facilitate storage and transportation, and promote sales in the process of circulation 0. The packaging of drugs refers to the general name of a processing process that selects appropriate materials or containers, uses packaging technology to divide (fill), seal, pack, label and other operations on semi-finished products or finished products of pharmaceutical preparations, provides quality protection for drugs, and signs trademarks and instructions. The packaging of drugs includes inner packaging and outer packaging

1 the role of drug packaging

1.1 the protection of functional drugs often takes a long time in the process of production, transportation, storage and use. Due to improper packaging, the physical or chemical properties of drugs may be changed, making drugs ineffective, ineffective and produce adverse reactions. Protective function should be considered as the primary factor in drug packaging. The protection function mainly includes the following two aspects: (1) barrier effect: depending on the packaging materials and methods, the packaging can ensure that the drugs in the container do not penetrate and leak, and can also block the external air, light, moisture, heat, foreign bodies and microorganisms from contacting the drugs. (2) Buffering effect: drug packaging has a buffering effect, which can prevent drugs from being vibrated, impacted and squeezed by various external forces during transportation and storage

1.2 convenient drug packaging should be convenient for patients and clinical use, and can help fatigue testing machine prevent mice. What are the methods to help doctors and patients use drugs scientifically and safely

(1) labels, instructions and packaging marks labels are important components of drug packaging. They scientifically and accurately introduce the basic content and commodity characteristics of specific drugs. The labels of drugs are divided into inner packaging labels and outer packaging labels. The contents of the inner package label and the outer package label shall not exceed the contents specified in the drug instructions approved by the State Food and drug administration; The words should be consistent with the instructions. The drug instructions should contain basic scientific information about the safety and effectiveness of drugs. Packaging mark is a special mark set up to help users identify drugs

(2) easy access and dosage, Ryan reed, President and executive member of reed composite solutions, said: "RCS products adopt multiple levels of compliance with spectrum shield materials: with the development of packaging materials and packaging technology, drug packaging is diversified, such as quantitative packaging, which is convenient for patients, and is also suitable for drugs sold in pharmacies; such as travel health care kits, which contain common drugs such as essential balm, pain relieving tablets, berberine; such as coronary heart disease emergency kits, which contain nitroglycerin tablets, quick acting heart saving pills, musk heart protecting pills, etc.; in complex A large number of packaging containers will appear in the conventional packaging under the treatment plan, which is not conducive to the patient's compliance with medication. Now some manufacturers have designed a new packaging box, which can put a variety of drugs in one box at the same time. The box is divided into several parts according to the number of days per week, and each part is divided into four chambers according to the number of times of medication per day, which simplifies the medication procedures, improves the medication compliance, and monitors the patient's dosage, It is especially suitable for elderly patients, so as to improve the treatment effect

1.3 commodity publicity drugs are special commodities, so we should first pay attention to their quality and application; From the perspective of merchantability, the scientific and modern degree of product packaging, to a certain extent, helps to show the quality and production level of products, can give people a sense of trust and security, and is conducive to marketing publicity

2 types of drug packaging materials

drug packaging materials and containers are referred to as drug packaging materials for short. According to the composition of materials, drug packaging materials can be divided into metal, glass, plastic (thermoplastic, thermosetting polymer compounds), rubber (thermosetting polymer compounds) and the combination of the above components (such as aluminum plastic composite cover, composite film for drug packaging), etc

2.1 only tin, aluminum, iron and lead are widely used in pharmaceutical packaging materials, which can be made into rigid containers, such as cans, barrels, hoses, metal foil, etc. Containers made of tin, aluminum, iron, lead and other metals cannot be penetrated by light, liquid, gas, odor and microorganisms; They can withstand both high and low temperatures. In order to prevent internal and external corrosion or chemical action, the internal and external walls of containers often need to be coated with protective layers

2.2 glass glass has excellent protection by testing the material, which is stable, cheap and beautiful. Glass containers are the most commonly used packaging containers for drugs. The glass is clear and bright, basically chemically inert, impermeable, hard, and non-aging. With a suitable plug or cover and cover liner, it can not be invaded by any external substances, but the light can penetrate. Brown glass containers can be used for drugs that need to be protected from light. The main disadvantages of glass are its heavy weight and fragility

2.3 rubber rubber has the characteristics of high elasticity, low air permeability and water permeability, sterilization resistance, good compatibility, etc., so rubber products are widely used in medicine, among which butyl rubber, halogenated butyl rubber, nitrile rubber, ethylene propylene rubber, natural rubber and CIS butyl rubber can be used to make the basic elements of pharmaceutical packaging system.)) pharmaceutical bottle stopper. In order to prevent drugs from being polluted and leaking during storage, transportation and use, rubber bottle plugs are generally used as seals for pharmaceutical product packaging, such as infusion bottle plugs, lyophilizer bottle plugs, blood test tube rubber plugs, pre installed injection syringe pistons, insulin injection pistons, and seals for various aerosol bottles

2.4 plastic and its composites plastic is a synthetic polymer compound with many superior properties, which can be used to produce rigid or soft containers. Plastic is lighter than glass or metal and is not easy to break, but it is inferior to glass in terms of air permeability, moisture permeability, chemical stability, heat resistance, etc. In recent years, in addition to the traditional polyester, polyethylene, polypropylene and other packaging materials used in pharmaceutical packaging, various new materials such as aluminum plastic, paper plastic and other composite materials are also widely used in pharmaceutical packaging, effectively improving the quality and grade of pharmaceutical packaging, showing a broad development prospect of plastics

2.4.1 aluminum plastic blister packaging of drugs is also known as blister eye packaging, abbreviated as/ptp0. It is to absorb and form transparent plastic hard tablets, fill solid drugs such as tablets, pills or granules, capsules in the groove, and then heat and stick them with aluminum foil coated with adhesive to form an independent sealed package. This kind of packaging is one of the flexible packaging forms of drugs that are widely used and developing rapidly in the pharmaceutical industry. It is gradually replacing the traditional glass bottle packaging and bulk packaging and becoming the mainstream of solid drug packaging. Compared with bottled drugs, the biggest advantage of blister packaging is that it is easy to carry and can reduce the pollution of drugs in the process of carrying and taking. In addition, blister packaging also has obvious advantages in gas barrier, moisture resistance, safety, production efficiency, dose accuracy and so on

2.4.2 composite film strip packaging strip packaging is to use two layers of medicinal strip packaging film (SP film) to clamp the drugs in the middle, separate a certain distance between the unit drugs, heat seal the inner side of the two layers of SP film around the drugs on the strip packaging machine, and press tooth marks between the drugs to form a unit packaging form (single piece packaging or row forming small packaging). When taking drugs, tear the SP film along the tooth mark. Strip packaging lamination can not only package tablets, but also the main packaging form of granules, powders and other dosage forms. It is suitable for packaging drugs with large dosage, strong moisture absorption and UV sensitivity. Strip packaging can work continuously on the strip packaging machine, which is especially suitable for automatic packaging in large quantities

2.4.3 infusion soft bag packaging infusion soft bag packaging has the following advantages: soft bag packaging is lighter than infusion bottles, is not afraid of collision, and is convenient to carry; It is especially suitable for high-dose dosing, and there is no liquid leakage after dosing. The pressure in the infusion bottle will increase after dosing, causing the liquid to leak out of the selective trachea, which not only wastes the medicine but also increases the chance of pollution; The liquid packaged in soft bags is completely sealed, and there is no loosening or cracking of the bottle mouth of bottled liquid; Strong flexibility and self shrinking. Under atmospheric pressure, the liquid medicine can be infused through a closed infusion pipeline to eliminate the danger of embolism caused by air and bubbles, and it is conducive to pressurized use in the emergency ambulance; Infusion bags can complete membrane (cleaning) printing, bag forming, bag mouth welding, filling, airless or vacuum pumping, sealing in infusion production; And the production line can complete leak detection and clarity inspection

3 quality requirements of drug packaging materials

in order to confirm that drug packaging materials can be used to wrap drugs, it is necessary to monitor the quality of these materials. Drug packaging materials should have the following characteristics: (1) protect drugs from the influence of the environment during storage and use, and maintain the original properties of drugs; (2) The drug packaging materials and the packaged drugs cannot have chemical and biological reactions; (3) The properties of drug packaging materials should be stable during storage and use; (4) Drug packaging materials shall not pollute the drug production environment when wrapping drugs; (5) Drug packaging materials shall not have properties that affect the packaged drugs that cannot be eliminated in the process of use

4 conclusion

with the continuous progress of modern science and technology, which was dissolved for some reasons, the pharmaceutical industry has also developed rapidly. It is necessary to select appropriate drug packaging materials according to the different properties of various drugs. Therefore, packaging materials with high safety, satisfactory quality, low cost and environmental protection will play an important role in product packaging

source: Journal of Community Medicine

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